Interdependence (1315 Hours)

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Sifting through the detritus of 2013 and the wisdom imparted by successes and failures of the prior year, the month of January is usually one of reflection and sober optimism for growth, advancement, and in some cases healing.   In my case, this reflection took nearly the entire month of January, and finally resulted in a list of “cello resolutions” for 2014.  What took so long?  Well, my initial lists were bogged down with details and nuances that would have resulted in unfocused and unproductive practice sessions.  So in an effort to refine the focus of my studies, I narrowed it down to a scant 10 technical skills and 6 musicianship skills.   I tried to make it shorter, but alas, my ambition has once again outstripped common sense wisdom.  To simplify the situation, I decided to write out a short definition for each of these skills so they could be organized by shared characteristics for more efficient practice.   Perhaps not surprisingly, the definitions revealed how interdependent these skills are, so that a deficiency in one would lead to a limitation in another.   Likewise, improving in one area should create new possibilities in mastering other skill sets!   The skills are listed below along with the set of related technical & musicianship skills listed by number/letter in parentheses (). 

I have printed this list and put in the cover of my cello workbook, so I can review it before each practice session in order to plan my goals for that day.

Technical Skills:

1) Double Stops & Chords – Playing two notes simultaneously with good tone quality,intonation, and relaxation (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9)
2) String Crossing – Switching between two strings while maintaining the contact point, tone quality, left hand position, and rhythm (4, 7, 9)
3) Finger Spacing – The ability of the left hand to feel the position of the notes before they are played (4, 6, 8)
4) Intonation/Relative Pitch  – The ability of the ear to anticipate the pitch of the notes before they are played (A, F)
5) Playing Faster – Increasing the tempo without sacrificing rhythm, tone quality, or musicality (2, 3, 6, 7, 8, F)
6) Relaxation – The ability to recognize sources of tension and then release it quickly, fully, and dynamically (A)
7) Rhythm, Counting & Timing – Giving notes their proper length according to the tempo and pulse (2, 6, 8, F)
8) Shifting – the ability of the entire body (mostly left arm) to feel the position of the notes and the distance between them along the string  (4, 6, A)
9) Tonalization – Manipulating the friction of the bow on the string via speed, pressure, and contact point to produce a sound as distinct as a human voice (4, 6, 7, A)
10) Vibrato – wavering the pitch of the note by relaxing the left hand as much as possible (3, 4, 6, 7, 8)

Musicianship Skills:

A) Confidence/Game Face – Believing in the ability to rise to a challenge, releasing mistakes quickly, focusing on the task at hand.  Keeping a poker face in the instance of performance mishaps.
B) Ensembles – Playing with other musicians while maintaining proper timing, intonation, tonalization, and dynamics (4, 7, 9)
C) Performance – Sharing current progress with an audience either live or via YouTube, once per month (A)
D) Analyze Music Theory of Bach’s Suites – Using knowledge of music theory & “musical geometry” to gain a deeper understanding of Bach’s genius and insight into how to play the Suites
E) Perform two movements of Suite no 1 – Learn the Minuets I&II and the Prelude from the first Suite with enough proficiency for competent performance (A)
F) Sight Reading – Being able to accurately render notes, in proper time, pitch, articulation, etc by reading faster than a given tempo. (4, 7)

I’ll be starting in a quartet in mid April, I’m currently working on the Bach Minuets I & II from suite no.1, and I will be posting a video in the next week or so from the end of Suzuki Book 4 (most likely Tchaikovsky’s Chanson Triste).  So I am well on my way to achieving my musicianship goals for 2014!  The technique goals are ongoing, and I’m sure I’ll be refining that list continually as the year goes on and my understanding of the fundamentals deepens.  

To all of my fellow musicians (and anyone who is trying to learn something new!) I wish you great success in the coming year!!

 

Christmas Recital (1216 Hours)

Happy Holidays everyone!   Thought I’d post my progress here with a recording of the piece I played at a winter recital last weekend.  It’s a duet that I performed with my teacher by Charles de Beriot, a little known composer and violinist who was influential during the Romantic Era.   The piece is very slow and with wide dynamic ranges and is more than 50% double stops with some challenging shifts.  It is not the most difficult piece I am working on, but is is still incredibly challenging with respect to maintaining good tone and good intonation since it is a four part harmony played on two cellos at a largo tempo.  Every aspect of technique is under a microscope in this piece.  I am also working on recording some stuff from Suzuki Book 4 (which I am finishing up!)  that is much more forgiving and less exacting when recording.  However, I wanted to post this first because I feel like it’s a more detailed picture of what I still have to work on.  Namely fuller tone, rhythm, smoother legato bow changes, more supple and springy right thumb,  & of course vibrato!

This is not a recording of the actual performance, but rather a multi-tracked duet performed on  my student cello.  The part with the sweeter tone & velvety vibrato is played by my teacher who used my cello to record a “practice” track to prepare for recital.   Her own cello sounds so much better, but she didn’t have it with her that day so she used mine.  Still… notice how much better she sounds on the same instrument!!   My squirlly and shrill student cello doesn’t diminish her skills one iota.

Good Vibrations (1,126 Hours)

As much as I dream of owning a better instrument some day, I know from experience that the wide realm of possibilities that define a cellist’s expressiveness is more the result of mastering of the principles of technique rather than the pedigree of their equipment.  This has been made evident to me on the many occasions upon which my teacher has borrowed my humble student cello in order to demonstrate a new technique or to inspect my setup, and the quality of her tone retains the same “personality” and “sweetness” despite the instrument’s limitations.  While a higher quality and more resonant instrument (or bow) can be a great benefit in molding your talent and understanding of the cello, there are also some basic principles of physics that when applied to the cello playing (or purchasing) can aid in your personal search for that elusive rich & dulcet timbre.

Likely by now you have heard of such things as overtones, or upper partials when describing a certain quality of sound of string, bow, or instrument, and harmonics when describing the left hand technique of producing more ephemeral pure tones.  What you  may not have been aware of is that all of these terms are all synonyms describing the same types of vibrations on a string.    Hidden within the broad waving motion of each note are shorter and faster vibrations at specific fractional wavelengths (eg 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, etc).  It can seem somewhat bizarre that a string can be vibrating simultaneously at so many frequencies at the same time (much like Schrodingers mysteriously bi-modal Cat).  Yet we know from experience that this is the case, because we can actively select each of these frequencies when we play harmonics or “false” harmonics  by isolating the individual overtones (and their octaves) by damping all the other vibrations with our finger tips:

The quality of a cello’s timbre is often described by a “color” as being warm, deep, mellow, clear, sweet, bright, rich, dull, round, metallic, rumbling or even harsh.   All of these terms are actually describing the strength and distribution of the overtones.   Warm, deep, mellow, pure or often what is generally referred to as “core” sound is actually describing weakness of overtones and stronger fundamental vibrations (eg all of the A’s ringing on the A string, 220hz, 440hz, 880hz, etc).  Rich, bright, metallic, rumbling, clear, or harsh is describing an increase in the strength of the overtones (eg all of the E’s, C’s, and G’s etc, which are also ringing on the open A string) compared to the strength of the fundamental vibrations.  Perhaps you’ve already noticed that occasionally when you play the open A string with a slightly harsh sounding technique, your tuner might register an E instead of an A.   This is because brighter sounds have stronger overtones, and the E is normally the strongest non-A overtone of the open A string!   As you will see later, it is no mere coincidence that the E and A sound so pleasing when played in harmony.

When a cello has a more core sound, it is easier to discern the intonation for that singular note.  However, when a cello is rich in overtones, it is easier to discern the relationship and intonation for the distance between notes.   Having more core sound vs rich overtones is something that you can alter by equipment selection and setup and also by bowing technique and fingering choice for enharmonics.  For example, playing with your bow closer to the bridge will produce stronger overtones, where as playing closer to the fingerboard will produce a more core or mellow sound.   In the case of enharmonics (ie equivalent pitches played on different strings) playing the same note closer to the bridge will reduce the strength of the overtones and produce a warmer sound, as I am sure you have noticed by now, playing the Open A string produces a much brighter (overtone rich) sound than playing the same note on the D string.   You can combine these techniques & setups to create various combinations of brightness and warmness.   Other factors that effect the richness of the overtones are the quality of the bow,  the gauge and tension of the strings, the suppleness of the bow hand/arm/shoulder, the shape of the bridge, the thickness/density/age of the wood, dryness/humidity, the quality and application of the varnish, and even the tension on the bow hair.   Generally speaking, the louder you play, and the more resonant your set up, the greater the component of overtones will be.  Some mutes will selectively dampen high or low frequencies, and depending on the note being played this will make the cello produce a dim rumble or a hollow squawk.

Though we do not hear them consciously as individual notes, overtones are what define our concept of harmony and dissonance.    This is because the part of the temporal lobe (auditory cortex) that is connected to our inner ear is designed to detect patterns and predict their significance.  For example. the simplest harmonic ratios between note frequencies are  2:3 (major 3rd), 3:4 (perfect 4th), or 4:5 (perfect 5th).  Because of the simplicity of their ratios, these notes share some of their strongest overtones, which means our brain has less work to do to detect the patterns involved, and this results in the general positive and uplifting association with these Major and Perfect intervals and this is what we perceive as “harmony”.  Not surprisingly, much of the earliest written music is based on the structure of these primal harmonies.   Other intervals have frequency ratios that share only weaker overtones (or upper partials) which means more work for the brain to decode that patterns, such as 5:6 (minor 3rd) 8:9 (major 2nd) or 8:15 (major 7th).   This extra load on our auditory cortex is more troubling to our psyche and leaves us with a feeling of discontent or unresolved tension (evidenced by the Riot of the Rite of Spring in 1913) and this what we call “dissonance”.   For better or worse, our brains are remarkably adaptable when it comes to learning new patterns and our sense of harmony is somewhat malleable & plastic both individually and as a society, which is why we enjoy music now (like Jazz and Heavy Metal) that likely would have wilted Mozart’s ears. 

The same is true when detecting and manipulating harmonic resonances on the cello.  Simple intervals create stronger sympathetic vibrations which is useful when trying to get better intonation by paying attention the resonance (ie “ringing”).   This is because the most resonant overtones are also the simplest ratios of frequencies.  As a general rule, the lower numbered overtones are stronger than the higher numbered ones even on setups with strong overtones. The strength of these basic overtones is why you can actually see your strings vibrating sympathetically when you play certain notes on the cello.  For weaker resonances, you will simply hear an increase in volume and texture of the sound and perhaps even feel your other strings vibrating by touching them with your finger tips.  Below is a map of the first 7 overtones on the cello (not counting the fundamental resonant frequency of the cello body itself which is usually F3 or F#3).  A complete map goes off the page to an infinite number of overtones, but these ones should be the most useful for checking intonation… remember, that even though the overtones are several octaves higher than the other open strings, every note is a strong overtone of the octave below it (eg G3 and G4 are strong overtones of the Open G2 string as well as the open C2 string).

CELLO OVERTONES
Root 8va 5th 8va 3rd 5th m7 8va
1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5 1:6 1:7 1:8
C2 C3 G3 C4 E4 G4 Bb4 C5
G2 G3 D4 G4 B4 D5 F5 G5
D3 D4 A4 D5 F5 A5 C5 D5
A3 A4 E5 A5 C6 E6 G6 A6

What is truly amazing about this information is not only that it is useful for creating beautiful music, but that these mathematical relationships actually define what music is!!   This is why music is so fundamental to the human experience, and might even be universal to any life form with a sense of sound.   Or, as math-musician Vihart  puts it:  all sound is essentially music…

Back to the Basics (1083 Hours)

After I passed the 1000 hour mark, I decided to take some time to reevaluate the effectiveness of various practice techniques.  In the months while I was recovering from my recent injury, I was given the “opportunity” to test to the effectiveness of certain elements of my practice routine by virtue of their absence.   Doing too many repetitions would have aggravated my injury, and slow practice was also dangerous since any accidental tension is magnified when you hold on to it 4 to 5 times longer than during performance speed.   The lack of these two pillars in my routine manifested in increasingly poor technique and culminated in a lesson where my limbs became completely inarticulate and betrayed the 20 hours of practice I had put in during the prior week.   Luckily, my injury had sufficiently healed to resume a more rigorous practice routine, so I resolved to spend the week after my disappointing performance getting back to the basics. The resulting changes in confidence and reliability while under pressure were palpable, and one week after my most disappointing performance at a lesson, my teacher gave me the best compliment I’ve ever gotten while behind a cello.

To clarify what I mean by “basics” I will describe in detail the missing stages of my daily routine that seem to yield the best and most reliable results:

Slow Practice:

There are several methods of slow practice.  The simplest and most basic is to play a piece through in it’s entirety at half tempo.  This is like riding an obstacle course at a relaxed paced to look for trouble spots and start building up confidence in expressive techniques while still retaining the basic musicality. I find this tempo is most effectively used for an initial exploratory sight-reading and then for more routine practice once I am already familiar with the musical phrases and beginning to stitch the pieces together in context.  However, in order to first familiarize myself the building blocks of a piece I utilize the next type of slow practice: “super slow motion” where the metronome is set anywhere from 40 bpm all the way down to a tantric 6 beats per minute.   This is more like walking an obstacle course and examining each rock on the trail with a magnifying glass.   The great benefit of this technique is in the first phase of learning, when we are developing a solid base of muscle memory so every initial repetition is a good one.  A “good” repetition doesn’t mean perfection, it simply means that you can clearly identify what went wrong, and then address it on the next repetition.  This is key because it not only reduces the amount of unlearning you will have to do as you polish the piece, it also makes the learning you do in this piece more adaptable and generalized to other pieces though the magical effect of consistent reinforcement.  The “downside” of super slow practice is that it requires a substantial initial investment and can take several days just to finish an initial run through of a challenging piece.  It’s important to remember that while this may seem slower, it is actually much faster than rushing through a piece only to collect a series of unconscious and ingrained bad habits. By focusing on a smaller volume of music with deeper and more meaningful repetitions, you can become reasonably competent at a new piece in a fraction of the time it might take otherwise.

When first attempting a piece at these super slow speeds, its musicality changes completely to the point where the melodies can be virtually unrecognizable for a while, but this is actually a good thing because as your working memory adapts, you start to see the whole structure again and at a much deeper level.  Initially, it is also very difficult to play this slowly and retain your sense of rhythm.  There are two methods I know of for alleviating this hurdle:

1) Starting at half tempo and slowing down the metronome in a stepwise fashion.  For example, starting at 40 bpm and gradually dropping the metronome down 8 bpm.  Much like slow and deep stretching, this helps to retain a feel for the pulse of the rhythm as you slow down to the speed of a tree sipping water.

2) Play with multiple clicks per beat. For instance, if you’re playing in 4/4 time, you can do 4 clicks per quarter note at 60 bpm (or 16 beats per measure).  If you are encountering a mix of triplet and duplet rhythms, then its best to use the first method and set the metronome for the common downbeats.

In both cases, every nuanced flaw in bow technique and intonation will become exposed.   This phenomenon is in part because playing “really slow” requires more mental effort than playing “moderately slow”, but it is also because most of the flaws we hear when we play in slow motion (that seem to disappear when we play faster) were actually there all along and were manifested as “unsweet” tone.    One hint that really helped me was learning that in order to get the same feel of resistance in the bow: the slower I went, the closer I had to play to the bridge.   Also, in order to get the most out of this technique, it is practically essential to have a good recording that you can play along with and try to match intonation and expressiveness.  To do this, you will need a device that will slow the music down while maintaining the proper pitch.   Some examples of this technology are Audacity and Anytune the former works on pretty much any desktop platform and is absolutely free, the latter of which works on iOS devices and of course costs money.  While Audacity is a great boon for anyone with a full blown computer in their practice space, I find that a mobile platform with something like Anytune is much more user friendly, easier to access into a practice room, and integrates sources like youtube/iTunes/email attachments with a one-button-press simplicity that saves me precious time.   One especially nice feature is the ability to create and bookmark loops in the music to use for repetitions, and a stepwise tempo ramp function that can increase the speed of a repeated loop incrementally until you are playing at full speed.   When increasing the tempo, I like to use the stepwise ramp in sets (eg 3 sets of 10 loops from 25% to 75% performance tempo) .  Which brings us to my second favorite practice technique…

Repetition:

This practice technique is a bit of a double edged sword.  As has been said many times: practice doesn’t make perfect, practice only makes permanent.  If all repetitions were created equal, then you could point any kid (or adult) at an instrument and given enough time a musical genius would emerge.   However, when we begin learning an instrument, most initial repetitions are extremely rough estimates, and if we accumulate repetitions without really hearing what we are doing or without knowing how to improve it, these rough estimates become our unconscious technique.   Luckily, the other side of this coin is that good observations reinforced by good habits will also tend to give good results.   There is actually a school of thought that claims that musical “genius” is really just the “dumb luck” that happens when someone randomly does everything “right” the first time and then reinforces this success through good practice.  The astronomical unlikelihood of this occurring randomly could be the reason why there are so few musical geniuses.  However it could also be true that these “geniuses” had access to a slightly less rare creature:  a knowledgeable and observant teacher who kept them on the straight and narrow and identified bad habits before they could become a real problem.   As beginners, and especially for adults, it is of paramount importance that we learn to hear as much detail as possible to gain the sensitivity required to start make good repetitions as early as possible in our careers.   As mentioned above, the best way to ensure that we can hear everything we are doing is by going slow enough that our brains have time to register an error and process the feedback so that a correction can be made.

Of course, the “fastest” useful speed will vary dramatically by our familiarity with the requirements of the music.  We can temporarily reduce the requirements of the music by simplifying it in various ways:

  • using separate bowing for each note (ignoring ties and legato)
  • ignoring time values and simply practice the feeling the space between two notes
  • simpifying rythms (eg making notes all the same time value)
  • inserting rests between notes on difficult shifts or extensions
  • removing the left hand from the equation, and playing open strings on difficult/rapid string changes
  • ignoring dynamics, vibrato, and other expressive markings
  • creating exercises that combine multiple simplifications

When doing repetitions, I try to manage the complexities of the instrument by using the above simplifications in order to focus on a single aspect of technique.   There is a school of thought that each repetition should be identical so that when you are playing under stress, your hands will only remember one thing to do, and I think there is merit to this principle once the basic fundamentals of technique are fully mastered.  However, beginners like myself still have so much to learn, and the only way we can do it is by breaking up highly complex tasks into their components and focusing on ONE single aspect of technique at a time.  Of course, it’s also best to re-implement the originally written markings back in as soon as (comfortably) possible to avoid creating confusing muscle memories.  With my limited knowledge, the basic elements I work on separately when doing repetitions are:

(in order or precedence)

  1.  intonation/finger spacing (separate bowing)
  2.  bowing patterns (open strings)
  3. rhythm/pulse
  4. body awareness/tension
  5. tone/expressiveness

The most important thing to remember when doing repetitions is to start as small as possible.   If I am just learning a piece, I will start by doing super slow practice, and loop a motif or a short phrase, and add motifs and phrases as I gain comfort with each of the 5 focuses above.   Once I am familiar with the section, I will begin increasing the speed and reduce the number of notes in the loop, starting with only 2 notes, and adding one at a time until I am at the level of a motif, and then a phrase.  I usually go through these 5 aspects of technique in order though my attention will often shift to a different one when a glaring issue pops up.   Steps 2, 3, and 4 are especially important to focus on when increasing the tempo.  1, 4, and 5 are most significant when doing very slow practice and against a good recording to get instant feedback on intonation and expressiveness.  The goal is to get to the point where 1-4 are unconscious, require only maintenance and tweaking, so that you can place the bulk of your attention on tone and expressiveness even when doing bursts at full tempo and eventually play the whole piece without becoming tense or fatigued.

I hope you found this post helpful!  Please feel free to share any practice techniques that have worked for you in the comments section!!

A Quantum of Harvey (1027 Hours)

Human Cochlea (Auditory Inner Ear)

A while ago I purchased some workbooks from Cassia Harvey on amazon in order to beef up my library of left hand finger exercises. The books were originally recommended to me by an academic source concerning the topic of adult cello students, and I read of several teachers who had found that the series made up for many of the deficits in the Suzuki and associated Method books and had led to breakthroughs and more rapid advances in struggling students. Never one to turn down a glowing book recommendation, I made a few forays into the beginner and intermediate books and saw that they had some very nice utility, but eventually the demands of my practice schedule compelled me to put this extra-curricular activity aside for the moment and focus on the material from in my weekly lessons. That is until recently, when I read a new and somewhat controversial blog post at the Bulletproof Musician about shaking up your repetitive practice routine with a random interval technique, and I was prompted to reexamine several cherished beliefs.  I had serious doubts about the benefit of this technique, especially in the case of beginners like myself because repetition seems like a necessary way of ingraining the muscle memory required to play this mercurial & nuanced instrument.

I still think there is certainly merit to the repetition technique and its ability to wear a grove in the mind’s ear, but after looking at the neuroscience on the topic and being somewhat convinced that my previous comfortable assumptions were in error, I decided to give randomness a try. I didn’t use any distinct methodology because the training effect on one person is a one-way non repeatable experiment with no control group. I just selected random measures from pieces and never repeated any one more than a few times before moving on.  After several days of this, I can report that it seems to be fairly effective, and at least as effective as doing many linear repetitions. In fact, while I feel less comfortable with my pieces, I can tell that shifting during sight reading already feels easier and more accurate (verified by tuner). And even though my Suzuki pieces “feel” less familiar, I can tell I am playing each note with greater ease and technical proficiency than I might have with straight repetition in the same time period.

Initially, I was worried that doing less than 5-10 repetions would cause my inner ear’s tuning to fail to latch on to the tone, but there seems to be some cumulative effect of hearing a bunch of relative intervals that warms up the ear at least as effectively as repetition. I think it has to do with the harmonic resonance of overtones reinforcing each other the same way they do in a chord or to a lesser degree in a scale. This is amazing because it points to growth in working memory for hearing relative (and even short term absolute) pitch. Anyone familiar with the double slit experiment in quantum mechanics may realize there is a similarity here between single electrons causing interference patterns and notes causing you to essentially remember “harmonies” even though the notes are seperated by minutes and even hours… Its kind of mind blowing.

Anyway, getting back to my original point, I discovered something similar to this kind of randomization in the books by Cassia Harvey, but its methodically intentional. She sets up her scales in a rhythmically, melodically, and harmonically “randomized” pattern that is both intuitive enough to sight read and yet nearly impossible to memorize or get comfortable with. I am very good at memorizing pages of music just by ear and by feel, but this material is some how randomized rythmically and melodically so that you can anticipate the next the note, but it still defies any attempts at comfort or zoning out in mindless repetitions. Her fingerings on these scales combine ear training, with shifting, and scale/fingerboard geography. The rhythmical variations are also designed to help you break past mental speed barriers in shifting, of which I have many! Her material is an exceedingly rich vein that makes spending 90 minutes on scales seem to fly by and yet be far more profitable than doing simple scales or arpeggios.

I realize this post probably reads like a Cassia Harvey ad, so for clarity, I am not affliated with Cassia Harvey in any way. I just read an unrelated masters thesis on adult cello education in the digital age earlier this year and her name came up in the sited sources. Btw, the book I am getting the most out right now is her two octave book.

Taking Stock (1,000 Hours!)

Since I just hit the mile stone of practicing for a cumulative 1,000 hours on the cello last night, it seems like a good moment to look back and assess the status of the journey so far.  After all, the point of this project isn’t simply to log hours, but to really think and plan with measurable goals and structured & focused practice routines designed to meet them.   A good example of this kind of mile stone setting is the list of goals my teacher help me design at the beginning of 2013 for the next 12 months (and beyond).  It was short & ambitious list:

  1. Learn one 3-octave scale per month, until I have all twelve major scales memorized
  2. Work on shifting (1st thru 4th positions)
  3. Improve intonation
  4. Work on Tone & bow technique
  5. Finish Suzuki Book 4
  6. Memorize 1 piece
  7. Work on Vibrato

Due to some injury related setbacks, I am a little bit behind on my scales.  As of October, I have 8 major scales memorized (C, G, D, A, E, B, F, & Bb).   So I am behind by 1 month – not too bad!   Technically, I am very familiar with Cminor too since it is prominently featured in Suzuki book 3, which is really Eb Major, so actually I’m still sort of on schedule.  As for shifting, I have probably done all the shifts between positions 1-4 many thousands of times each, and while my shifting isn’t perfect by any stretch, it is infinitely more reliable than it was 9 months ago.  My intonation has also improved dramatically since I can now clearly hear the difference between a note that is 10 cents off pitch, and when I started I could only reliably detect a difference of 30 cents.   Btw, this doesn’t mean that I play perfectly in tune to within 10 cents all the time, it just means that if someone plays a 440hz A, and then immediately plays a 442.6Hz A, I will know they’re were a little different.   9 months ago, I could only tell the difference between 440 and 448.   Smart phone pitch pipe apps (like Cleartune) are wonderful tools for measuring & developing this kind of sensitivity.   Unfortunately, it took a wrist injury and nerve damage to show me how sloppy, tense, & contorted my bow technique has been.   However, doing anything that is wrong (like tensing up, pressing, contorting, or waggling) causes instant feedback in the form of very real pain, so I am slowly discovering ways to play loudly, clearly, and with a more sensitive and sweeter tone that requires very little muscular effort while maintaining a very neutral anatomy.   Now it feels like the bow is fairly solidly in my hand, but I am holding it lightly enough that it could be wrestled away by a small child or a larcenous squirrel.   Once I heal, my teacher has some (non-Suzuki) challenging duets lined up, so combined with the injury setbacks, I will probably finish Suzuki Book 4 in Jan 2014.   I have memorized several pieces of music from Book 3, and my vibrato is much more relaxed and fluid on all fingers and in positions 1 through 6, though it is still somewhat stiff and tense in first position.     All told, I feel very good about this list and the progress I have made this year.  In all honesty, I thought it would take me several years to get to this point on Cello Mountain.  It’s probably a good time to refine the goals on that list into something more specific and measurable, and also to look more deeply into what learning techniques and practice elements were the most effective.